Cariology - Substrate
In dentistry, substrates refer to any type of food that we consume. In our paper, we attempt to identify the relationships surrounding substrates and the effects of substrates on oral health. Click on the following headings to know more about diet and dental health.

Diet and Dental Caries
In this section, we take a look at how the types of diets affect oral health. We have briefly described the types of food that are commonly consumed throughout the world, the mechanism through which dental caries and dental erosion occur and the protective mechanism of the saliva’s pH buffering system.

Types of Sugar
Here, we introduce the different types of sugars available in the industry, ranging from monosaccharides, disaccharides, and sugar alcohols and their different uses.

Cariogenicity of Other Foods

Sucrose may be recognized as the primary cause of dental caries; but nevertheless, we must identify how other common foods influence the development of caries because we seldom eat sucrose by itself. In this section, 3 kinds of common foods, namely: starch, fruits and milk are tackled to provide a general outlook on the cariogenic effects of our usual diet.

Evidence Linking Sugar and Dental Caries
This section provides us the evidence linking substrate to dental caries. The studies in human include epidemiological and intervention studies that deal with changes in diet, intake frequency, amount of sugar intake and non-cariogenic sugars.

Influence of Consumption Pattern

In this section, we discuss the factors that determine the occurrence of dental caries, such as the frequency of intake of sugars, the total amount of sugar consumed, the sequence of consuming cariogenic foods during meals and the consumption of soft drinks.

Malnutrition and Dental Caries
This section explores the effect of malnutrition on the formation of dentition, salivary flow rate and the indirect link to dental caries.

Influence of Fluoride on the Sugar/Caries Relationship

The effects of fluoride on dental caries are well documented. Can fluoride alter the sugar-caries relationship?

Protective Factors in Foods

The substances in food that protect oral health are briefly described here. It has been covered in-depth by another group, and as such, a hyperlink has been inserted.

Non-Sugar Sweeteners
Sugar substitutes have been recommended to reduce and control dental caries. What are the effects of sugar substitutes on dental caries?

Dietary Control and Dental Caries
As discussed earlier, the consumption of different foods will affect the oral health in different ways. The type of diets consumed and frequency of intake are discussed here. Please follow the hyperlink.

We give a brief conclusion of our paper and discuss the areas of new knowledge, concepts that were difficult to understand, controversial topics, and also areas for possible further research.