Influence of Consumption Pattern

Hwee Kee

Introduction


The incidence of dental caries is mainly determined by the

1) frequency of intake of sugars and
2) total amount of sugar consumed.

These two factors are highly interrelated. Most often, an increase in one factor will lead to an increase in the other factor.


It is also believed that the sequence of consuming cariogenic food during meals affects the incidence of dental caries.


Furthermore, there has been a trend that the rise in consumption of soft drinks in recent years has lead to an increase in dental erosion.

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Influence of frequency of intake of sugars on incidence of dental caries

It is believed that an increase in frequency of intake of sugars has a greater impact on the increase in the incidence of dental caries. (Sheiham, 2001, p.581)
Therefore, the slow liberation of sugars exposes the teeth to sugar for a longer period of time. This can lead to an increase in amount of time of acid being produced, resulting in a significant rise of caries.
(Zero, Moynihan, Lingstrom, & Birkhed, 2008, p.333)

The Vipeholm study shows that by increasing the frequency of sugar consumed, DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth) per person also increases. (Zero, Moynihan, Lingstrom, & Birkhed, 2008, p.333)



Figure 1.
Influence of Consumption Pattern - Cariology
(Image taken from Zero, Moynihan, Lingstrom, & Birked, 2008, p.333)

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Influence of total amount of sugar consumed on incidence of dental caries


An increase in total amount of sugar consumed can lead to an increase in the incidence of dental caries.

Figure 2.


Influence of Consumption Pattern - Cariology
(Image taken from McMorris, 2006)


Studies such as Takeuchi (1961) and Sreebny (1982) shows an S shaped (sigmoidal) relationship between dental caries and amount of sugar consumed.
Dental caries increases steeply initially when intake of sugar is increased,
and resultantly reaches a plateau of 35kg/person/year. (Fejerskov, Nyvad, & Kidd, 2008, p22- 23) Therefore, the plateau shows a weaker correlation between amount of sugar consumed and dental caries.

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Influence of sequence of consuming cariogenic food during meals on dental caries


The sequence of intake of certain foods is vital on changing the properties of cariogenic food (especially sucrose). (Zero, Moynihan, Lingstrom, & Birkhed, 2008, p.334)

Consumption of dairy products and protein-rich food after consuming cariogenic food reduces acid production by acting as buffers and help to reduce the demineralization process. (Hershey's, 2009) Cow's milk contains calcium, phosphorous and casein, which inhibits caries, and plaque pH. Hard cheeses, wholegrain foods, peanuts and chewing gum stimulates salivary flow which in turn protects against decay. (Moynihan, 2005, p.697)

However, consumption of starchy food tends to increase the properties of cariogenic food when they are consumed simultaneously. This is due to the fact that starchy food retains the cariogenic food on tooth surface, resulting in a fall in pH for a longer period of time.
(Zero, Moynihan, Lingstrom, Birkhed, 2008, p.334)

Influence of Consumption Pattern - CariologyInfluence of Consumption Pattern - Cariology
(Taken from http://www.nataliedee.com)

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Influence of consumption of soft drinks on dental erosion



Influence of Consumption Pattern - Cariology The trend of high dental erosion is mainly due to the increased in intake of acidic beverages over recent decades.


Soft drinks are the largest source of sugar in United States. The sale of soft drinks commercially has risen by 56% over the last decade, and it is expected to increase by 2-3% a year. (Moynihan, 2002, p.12)

An increase in intake of soft drinks exposes the teeth to acid, lowering the pH, resulting in acid erosion.





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(Taken from http://thebsreport.wordpress.com)

References

1. Fejerskov, O., Nyvad, B., & Kidd, E. (2008). Pathology of dental caries. In O. Fejerskov & E. Kidd (Eds.), Dental Caries: The Disease and its Clinical Management (pp. 20-48): Blackwell Munksgaard.

2. Hershey's (2009). Food choices and dietary patterns. Diet and dental health. Retrieved 12 October 2009 from http://www.hersheys.com/nutrition/dental.asp

3. McMorris, D. (2006). The scientific literacy of Irish 15 years old. Retrieved 12 October 2009 from http://www.irishscientist.ie/2006/contents.asp?contentxml=06p20.xml&contentxsl=is06pages.xsl

4. Moynihan, P. (2002). Annex 6: the scientific basis for diet, nutrition, and the prevention of dental diseases, Background paper for the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.

5. Moynihan, P. (2005). The role of diet and nutrition in the etiology and prevention of oral diseases. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83(9), 694-699.

6. Screebny, L. M. (1982). The Sugar-Caries Axis. Int Dent J, 32, 1-12.

7. Sheiham, A. (2001). Dietary effects on dental diseases. Public Health Nutr, 4(2B), 569-591.

8. Takeuchi, M. (1961). Epidemiological Study on Dental Caries in Japanese Children Before, During and After World War II. Int Dent J, 11, 443-457.

9. Zero, D. T., Moynihan, P., Lingstrom, P., & Birkhed, D. (2008). The role of dietary control. In O. Fejerskov & E. Kidd (Eds.), Dental Caries: The Disease and its Clinical Management (pp. 330-351): Blackwell Munksgaard.







Links
Diet and Dental Caries | Types of Sugar | Cariogenicity of Other Foods | Evidence Linking Sugar and Dental Caries in Humans | Influence of Consumption Pattern | Malnutrition and Dental Caries | Influence of Fluoride on the Sugar/Caries Relationship | Protective Factors in Foods | Non-Sugar Sweeteners | Dietary Control and Dental Caries | Summary

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